CPC Practice Exam

Medical Terminology: Abbreviations N-P

Medical abbreviations that begin with N-P are listed here.

Medical Abbreviations
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  • Abbreviation: Na
    Meaning: sodium (from Latin natrium)
  • Abbreviation: NAAT
    Meaning: nuclear acid amplification test
  • Abbreviation: NABS
    Meaning: normoactive bowel sounds
  • Abbreviation: NAC
    Meaning: n-acetyl cysteine
  • Abbreviation: NAD
    Meaning: no abnormality detected; no apparent distress; (and many variations of the above)
  • Abbreviation: NAD+
    Meaning: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  • Abbreviation: NAS
    Meaning: no added salt
  • Abbreviation: NB
    Meaning: newborn (infant); note well (please pay attention) (from Latin nota bene)
  • Abbreviation: NBN
    Meaning: newborn nursery
  • Abbreviation: NBIA
    Meaning: neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
  • Abbreviation: NBT
    Meaning: nitroblue tetrazolium
  • Abbreviation: NBTE
    Meaning: nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
  • Abbreviation: NC
    Meaning: nerve action potential; nasal cannula
  • Abbreviation: NCC
    Meaning: noncompaction cardiomyopathy
  • Abbreviation: NCEP
    Meaning: National Cholesterol Education Program
  • Abbreviation: NCS
    Meaning: nerve conduction study
  • Abbreviation: NCT
    Meaning: nerve conduction test, aka nerve conduction study
  • Abbreviation: NCV
    Meaning: nerve conduction velocity (see nerve conduction study)
  • Abbreviation: ND
    Meaning: (examination) not done
  • Abbreviation: NDI
    Meaning: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
  • Abbreviation: NE
    Meaning: norepinephrine
  • Abbreviation: Ne
    Meaning: neutrophil granulocytes
  • Abbreviation: NEC
    Meaning: not elsewhere classified; necrotizing enterocolitis
  • Abbreviation: Neg
    Meaning: negative
  • Abbreviation: Neo
    Meaning: neoplasm
  • Abbreviation: NES
    Meaning: not elsewhere specified
  • Abbreviation: NFR
    Meaning: not for resuscitation
  • Abbreviation: NG
    Meaning: nasogastric
  • Abbreviation: NGT; NG tube
    Meaning: nasogastric tube
  • Abbreviation: NGTD
    Meaning: negative to date
  • Abbreviation: NGU
    Meaning: nongonococcal urethritis
  • Abbreviation: NHL
    Meaning: non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Abbreviation: NICU
    Meaning: neonatal intensive care unit
  • Abbreviation: NIDDM
    Meaning: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Abbreviation: NIH
    Meaning: National Institutes of Health
  • Abbreviation: NK; NK cells
    Meaning: natural killer cells
  • Abbreviation: NKA
    Meaning: no known allergies
  • Abbreviation: NKDA
    Meaning: no known drug allergies
  • Abbreviation: Nl
    Meaning: normal
  • Abbreviation: NLP
    Meaning: no light perception (highest degree of blindness)
  • Abbreviation: NM
    Meaning: nuclear medicine
  • Abbreviation: NMR
    Meaning: nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Abbreviation: NNH
    Meaning: number needed to harm
  • Abbreviation: NNT
    Meaning: number needed to treat
  • Abbreviation: NO
    Meaning: nitric oxide
  • Abbreviation: No.
    Meaning: number
  • Abbreviation: NOF
    Meaning: neck of femur fracture (refers to hip fracture)
  • Abbreviation: NOMI
    Meaning: nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia
  • Abbreviation: Non rep.
    Meaning: do not repeat
  • Abbreviation: NOS
    Meaning: nitric oxide synthase; not otherwise specified
  • Abbreviation: NPA
    Meaning: nasal pharyngeal aspirate
  • Abbreviation: NPH
    Meaning: normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Abbreviation: Npl
    Meaning: neoplasm
  • Abbreviation: NP
    Meaning: Nurse Practitioner
  • Abbreviation: NPO
    Meaning: nil per os (nothing by mouth)
  • Abbreviation: NPPV
    Meaning: noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
  • Abbreviation: NPTAC
    Meaning: no previous tracing available for comparison
  • Abbreviation: NPV
    Meaning: negative predictive value
  • Abbreviation: NRB
    Meaning: non-rebreather mask
  • Abbreviation: NRBC
    Meaning: nucleated red blood cells
  • Abbreviation: NREM
    Meaning: non–rapid eye movement
  • Abbreviation: n.s.
    Meaning: not significant
  • Abbreviation: NS
    Meaning: normal saline
  • Abbreviation: NSA
    Meaning: no significant abnormality
  • Abbreviation: NSAID
    Meaning: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug
  • Abbreviation: NSCC
    Meaning: Non-squamous-cell carcinoma
  • Abbreviation: NSCLC
    Meaning: non–small cell lung carcinoma
  • Abbreviation: NSD
    Meaning: normal spontaneous delivery (see childbirth)
  • Abbreviation: NSE
    Meaning: neurospecific enolase
  • Abbreviation: NSR
    Meaning: normal sinus rhythm
  • Abbreviation: NST
    Meaning: non-stress test (see cardiotocograph)
  • Abbreviation: NSTEMI
    Meaning: non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
  • Abbreviation: NSU
    Meaning: nonspecific urethritis
  • Abbreviation: NSVD
    Meaning: normal spontaneous vaginal delivery
  • Abbreviation: NT
    Meaning: not tested; nuchal translucency
  • Abbreviation: NTD
    Meaning: neural tube defect
  • Abbreviation: NTG
    Meaning: nitroglycerin
  • Abbreviation: n/t
    Meaning: numbness and tingling
  • Abbreviation: NTT
    Meaning: nasotracheal tube (see intubation)
  • Abbreviation: NTX
    Meaning: N-telopeptide
  • Abbreviation: N&V; n/v
    Meaning: nausea and vomiting
  • Abbreviation: NVD
    Meaning: normal vaginal delivery (see childbirth); nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Abbreviation: NVDC
    Meaning: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation
  • Abbreviation: NYHA
    Meaning: New York Heart Association


  • Abbreviation: ō
    Meaning: Nothing [ō—letter o with overbar]
  • Abbreviation: O2
    Meaning: oxygen
  • Abbreviation: OA
    Meaning: osteoarthritis
  • Abbreviation: OAF
    Meaning: osteoclast activating factor
  • Abbreviation: OB
    Meaning: Occult blood
  • Abbreviation: OB-GYN; ob-gyne
    Meaning: obstetrics and gynecology
  • Abbreviation: Obl
    Meaning: oblique
  • Abbreviation: OBS
    Meaning: organic brain syndrome
  • Abbreviation: Occ
    Meaning: occasional
  • Abbreviation: OCD
    Meaning: obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Abbreviation: OCG
    Meaning: oral cholecystogram
  • Abbreviation: OCNA
    Meaning: old chart not available (see medical history)
  • Abbreviation: OCP
    Meaning: oral contraceptive pill
  • Abbreviation: OCT
    Meaning: optical coherence tomography
  • Abbreviation: OD
    Meaning: right eye (from Latin oculus dexter); overdose; occupational disease
  • Abbreviation: od
    Meaning: every day, usually regarded as once daily (from Latin omni die). Generally written in lowercase.
  • Abbreviation: ODC
    Meaning: ornithine decarboxylase
  • Abbreviation: OE
    Meaning: otitis externa
  • Abbreviation: O/E
    Meaning: on examination
  • Abbreviation: OGTT
    Meaning: oral glucose tolerance test
  • Abbreviation: OHL
    Meaning: oral hairy leukoplakia
  • Abbreviation: Oint
    Meaning: ointment
  • Abbreviation: OM
    Meaning: otitis media
  • Abbreviation: om
    Meaning: every morning (from Latin omni mane). Generally written in lowercase.
  • Abbreviation: OME
    Meaning: otitis media with effusion (fluid in the inner ear without other symptoms)
  • Abbreviation: on
    Meaning: every night (from Latin omni nocte). Generally written in lowercase.
  • Abbreviation: OOB
    Meaning: out of bed
  • Abbreviation: OP
    Meaning: outpatient department; osteoporosis
  • Abbreviation: O&P
    Meaning: ova and parasites
  • Abbreviation: OPD
    Meaning: outpatient department
  • Abbreviation: OPPT
    Meaning: oriented to person, place, and time
  • Abbreviation: OPV
    Meaning: outpatient visit
  • Abbreviation: OR
    Meaning: operating room (aka operating theatre); odds ratio
  • Abbreviation: ORIF
    Meaning: open reduction internal fixation
  • Abbreviation: ORSA
    Meaning: oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
  • Abbreviation: ORT
    Meaning: oral rehydration therapy
  • Abbreviation: OS
    Meaning: left eye (from Latin oculus sinister)
  • Abbreviation: OS
    Meaning: overall survival
  • Abbreviation: OS
    Meaning: orthopedic surgery
  • Abbreviation: OSA
    Meaning: obstructive sleep apnea
  • Abbreviation: OSH
    Meaning: outside hospital
  • Abbreviation: Osm
    Meaning: osmolarity
  • Abbreviation: Osteo
    Meaning: osteomyelitis
  • Abbreviation: OT
    Meaning: occupational therapy
  • Abbreviation: OTC
    Meaning: over-the-counter drug
  • Abbreviation: OTD
    Meaning: out the door (discharged)
  • Abbreviation: OTPP
    Meaning: oriented to time, place, and person
  • Abbreviation: OU
    Meaning: both eyes (from Latin oculi uterque)
  • Abbreviation: OV
    Meaning: office visit (see ambulatory care)
  • Abbreviation: oz
    Meaning: ounce


  • Abbreviation: p
    Meaning: after (from Latin post) [letter p with a bar over it]
  • Abbreviation: P
    Meaning: parturition (total number of live births); phosphorus; pulse; post
  • Abbreviation: POSM
    Meaning: plasma osmolality
  • Abbreviation: PA
    Meaning: posterior-anterior, posteroanterior; pulmonary artery; physician assistant; psoriatic arthritis
  • Abbreviation: P&A
    Meaning: percussion and auscultation
  • Abbreviation: PAC
    Meaning: premature atrial contraction; pulmonary artery catheter, pulmonary artery catheterisation
  • Abbreviation: PAD
    Meaning: peripheral artery disease (aka peripheral artery occlusive disease); postadmission day (eg, PAD 6 equals the sixth day of being in hospital)
  • Abbreviation: PAF
    Meaning: platelet activating factor; paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (meaning intermittent AF)
  • Abbreviation: PAH
    Meaning: pulmonary arterial hypertension; phenylalanine hydroxylase
  • Abbreviation: PAI-1
    Meaning: plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
  • Abbreviation: PAL
    Meaning: posterior axillary line
  • Abbreviation: PALS
    Meaning: Pediatric Advanced Life Support (training program)
  • Abbreviation: PAN
    Meaning: polyarteritis nodosa
  • Abbreviation: PAO
    Meaning: peak acid output
  • Abbreviation: PAOD
    Meaning: peripheral artery occlusive disease
  • Abbreviation: PAP
    Meaning: Papanicolaou stain; positive airway pressure; pulmonary artery pressure (see pulmonary hypertension); pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
  • Abbreviation: Pap
    Meaning: Papanicolaou test (pap smear)
  • Abbreviation: PAPP-A
    Meaning: pregnancy-associated plasma protein A
  • Abbreviation: PARA I
    Meaning: indicating a woman with one child (partus = birth)
  • Abbreviation: PARA II
    Meaning: indicating a woman with two children (partus = birth)
  • Abbreviation: PAT
    Meaning: paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
  • Abbreviation: PBC
    Meaning: primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Abbreviation: PBF
    Meaning: peripheral blood film
  • Abbreviation: p.c.
    Meaning: after food (from Latin post cibum); after meals
  • Abbreviation: PCA
    Meaning: patient-controlled analgesia
  • Abbreviation: PCa
    Meaning: prostate cancer
  • Abbreviation: PCD
    Meaning: postconcussional disorder; primary ciliary dyskinesia
  • Abbreviation: PCI
    Meaning: percutaneous coronary intervention
  • Abbreviation: PCL
    Meaning: posterior cruciate ligament
  • Abbreviation: PCN
    Meaning: penicillin
  • Abbreviation: PCNSL
    Meaning: primary CNS (central nervous system) lymphoma
  • Abbreviation: PCO
    Meaning: polycystic ovary (see polycystic ovarian syndrome)
  • Abbreviation: PCOS
    Meaning: polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Abbreviation: PCP
    Meaning: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (now called Pneumocystis pneumonia); primary care physician (also called primary care provider)
  • Abbreviation: PCR
    Meaning: patient care report; polymerase chain reaction
  • Abbreviation: PCS
    Meaning: post-concussion syndrome
  • Abbreviation: PCT
    Meaning: progesterone challenge test
  • Abbreviation: PCV
    Meaning: packed cell volume (see hematocrit); polycythemia vera
  • Abbreviation: PCWP
    Meaning: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
  • Abbreviation: PD
    Meaning: Parkinson's disease; peritoneal dialysis; physical diagnosis; personality disorder; program director
  • Abbreviation: PDA
    Meaning: patent ductus arteriosus; posterior descending artery
  • Abbreviation: PDD
    Meaning: premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • Abbreviation: PDE
    Meaning: phosphodiesterase
  • Abbreviation: PDGF
    Meaning: platelet-derived growth factor
  • Abbreviation: PDR
    Meaning: Physicians' Desk Reference
  • Abbreviation: PDT
    Meaning: photodynamic therapy
  • Abbreviation: PDVT
    Meaning: Postoperative Deep-Vein Thrombosis
  • Abbreviation: PE
    Meaning: pulmonary embolism; pre-eclampsia; physical examination
  • Abbreviation: PEA
    Meaning: pulseless electrical activity
  • Abbreviation: PEEP
    Meaning: positive end expiratory pressure
  • Abbreviation: PEF
    Meaning: peak expiratory flow
  • Abbreviation: PEFR
    Meaning: peak expiratory flow rate
  • Abbreviation: PEG
    Meaning: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
  • Abbreviation: PEM
    Meaning: protein/energy malnutrition (aka Kwashiorkor)
  • Abbreviation: pen
    Meaning: penicillin (Best practice is to avoid drug name abbreviations)
  • Abbreviation: PEP
    Meaning: postexposure prophylaxis
  • Abbreviation: PERRL
    Meaning: pupils equal, round, reactive to light
  • Abbreviation: PERLA
    Meaning: pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation
  • Abbreviation: PERRLA
    Meaning: pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
  • Abbreviation: Per Vag
    Meaning: per vagina
  • Abbreviation: PET
    Meaning: positron-emission tomography (cerebral metabolic scan)
  • Abbreviation: PFO
    Meaning: patent foramen ovale
  • Abbreviation: PFT
    Meaning: pulmonary function test (see spirometry)
  • Abbreviation: PGCS
    Meaning: Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Abbreviation: PH
    Meaning: Pulmonary hypertension; Past history (see also medical history)
  • Abbreviation: PHx
    Meaning: past history (see also medical history)
  • Abbreviation: PHN
    Meaning: postherpetic neuralgia
  • Abbreviation: PHTLS
    Meaning: prehospital trauma life support
  • Abbreviation: PI
    Meaning: present illness
  • Abbreviation: PICC
    Meaning: peripherally inserted central catheter
  • Abbreviation: PID
    Meaning: pelvic inflammatory disease; prolapsed intervertibral disc
  • Abbreviation: PIG-A
    Meaning: phosphatidyl inositol glycan A
  • Abbreviation: PIH
    Meaning: pregnancy induced hypertension
  • Abbreviation: PIP
    Meaning: proximal interphalangeal joint
  • Abbreviation: PK
    Meaning: protein kinase
  • Abbreviation: PKA
    Meaning: protein kinase A
  • Abbreviation: PKD
    Meaning: polycystic kidney disease
  • Abbreviation: PKU
    Meaning: phenylketonuria (PKU card—see Guthrie test)
  • Abbreviation: PLAT
    Meaning: tissue plasminogen activator
  • Abbreviation: PLIF
    Meaning: posterior lumbar interbody fusion (a type of spinal fusion)
  • Abbreviation: PLT
    Meaning: platelets
  • Abbreviation: PM
    Meaning: post meridiem (in the afternoon)
  • Abbreviation: PMB
    Meaning: post-menopausal bleeding (bleeding after menopause)
  • Abbreviation: PMD
    Meaning: primary medical doctor
  • Abbreviation: PMDD
    Meaning: premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • Abbreviation: PMH
    Meaning: past medical history (see also medical history); perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Abbreviation: PMI
    Meaning: point of maximal impulse or apical beat; point of maximal intensity
  • Abbreviation: PML
    Meaning: polyoma virus; progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  • Abbreviation: PMP
    Meaning: Pseudomyxoma peritonei
  • Abbreviation: PMN
    Meaning: polymorphonuclear leukocytes, that is, neutrophils
  • Abbreviation: PMR
    Meaning: percutaneous myocardial revascularization; polymyalgia rheumatica; proportionate mortality rate
  • Abbreviation: PM&R
    Meaning: physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • Abbreviation: PMS
    Meaning: premenstrual syndrome
  • Abbreviation: PNA
    Meaning: pneumonia
  • Abbreviation: PND
    Meaning: paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; postnasal drip
  • Abbreviation: PNH
    Meaning: paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  • Abbreviation: PNM
    Meaning: perinatal mortality
  • Abbreviation: PO
    Meaning: by mouth, that is, orally (from Latin per os)
  • Abbreviation: POC
    Meaning: postoperative care; products of conception; Plan of Care
  • Abbreviation: POD
    Meaning: postoperative days
  • Abbreviation: poly
    Meaning: polymorphonuclear cells, that is, neutrophils
  • Abbreviation: Post
    Meaning: posterior (see anatomical terms of location)
  • Abbreviation: POX
    Meaning: peroxidase
  • Abbreviation: PP
    Meaning: pulse pressure; postpartum, that is, postnatal
  • Abbreviation: PPCS
    Meaning: prolonged post-concussion syndrome
  • Abbreviation: PPD
    Meaning: packs per day (cigarettes); postpartum depression, that is, postnatal depression; purified protein derivative or Mantoux test, for tuberculosis testing
  • Abbreviation: PPH
    Meaning: postpartum hemorrhage; primary pulmonary hypertension; procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids
  • Abbreviation: PPI
    Meaning: proton pump inhibitor
  • Abbreviation: PPROM
    Meaning: preterm premature rupture of membranes
  • Abbreviation: PPS
    Meaning: post-polio syndrome
  • Abbreviation: Ppt
    Meaning: precipitate; precipitating
  • Abbreviation: PPTCT
    Meaning: prevention of parent-to-child transmission [of HIV] (government of India initiative)
  • Abbreviation: PPTL
    Meaning: postpartum tubal ligation
  • Abbreviation: PPV
    Meaning: positive predictive value
  • Abbreviation: PPx
    Meaning: prophylaxis
  • Abbreviation: PR
    Meaning: prothrombin ratio
  • Abbreviation: p.r.
    Meaning: per rectum (as noun: rectal examination)
  • Abbreviation: PRA
    Meaning: plasma renin activity
  • Abbreviation: PRBC; PRBCs
    Meaning: packed red blood cells
  • Abbreviation: Preme
    Meaning: premature infant (see premature birth)
  • Abbreviation: Prep
    Meaning: preparation
  • Abbreviation: PRIND
    Meaning: prolonged reversible ischemic neurologic deficit
  • Abbreviation: PRL
    Meaning: prolactin
  • Abbreviation: prn; PRN
    Meaning: as necessary (from Latin pro re nata) (if used in chronic pain control, sometimes disparagingly termed "pain relief nil")
  • Abbreviation: as needed
  • Abbreviation: Prog
    Meaning: prognosis
  • Abbreviation: PROM
    Meaning: premature rupture of membranes
  • Abbreviation: PRP
    Meaning: panretinal photocoagulation
  • Abbreviation: progressive rubella panencephalitis
  • Abbreviation: PRV
    Meaning: polycythemia rubra vera (see polycythemia vera)
  • Abbreviation: PSA
    Meaning: prostate-specific antigen
  • Abbreviation: PSGN
    Meaning: poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
  • Abbreviation: PSH
    Meaning: psychosocial history; past medical history (see also medical history)
  • Abbreviation: PSP
    Meaning: phenylsulphtalein
  • Abbreviation: PSS
    Meaning: progressive systemic sclerosis (see scleroderma)
  • Abbreviation: PT
    Meaning: prothrombin time; physical therapy (physiotherapy)
  • Abbreviation: Pt.
    Meaning: patient (from Latin patiens, meaning “one who endures” or “one who suffers”)
  • Abbreviation: PTA
    Meaning: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; post-traumatic amnesia; prior to admission
  • Abbreviation: PTB
    Meaning: pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Abbreviation: PTC
    Meaning: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
  • Abbreviation: PTCA
    Meaning: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  • Abbreviation: PTD
    Meaning: prior to discharge; preterm delivery
  • Abbreviation: PTH
    Meaning: parathyroid hormone
  • Abbreviation: PTHC
    Meaning: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
  • Abbreviation: PTL
    Meaning: preterm labor
  • Abbreviation: PTSD
    Meaning: posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Abbreviation: PTSS
    Meaning: posttraumatic stress syndrome (see posttraumatic stress disorder)
  • Abbreviation: PTT
    Meaning: partial thromboplastin time
  • Abbreviation: PTU
    Meaning: propylthiouracil
  • Abbreviation: PTx
    Meaning: pneumothorax
  • Abbreviation: PUBS
    Meaning: percutaneous umbilical blood sample
  • Abbreviation: PUD
    Meaning: peptic ulcer disease
  • Abbreviation: PUO
    Meaning: pyrexia of unknown origin
  • Abbreviation: PUVA
    Meaning: psoralen UV A (photochemical ultraviolet light A waves)
  • Abbreviation: p.v.
    Meaning: per vagina (as noun: vaginal examination with manual examination and speculum inspection)
  • Abbreviation: PVC (VPC)
    Meaning: premature ventricular contraction
  • Abbreviation: PVD
    Meaning: peripheral vascular disease
  • Abbreviation: PVFS
    Meaning: post-viral fatigue syndrome
  • Abbreviation: PVR
    Meaning: pulmonary vascular resistance
  • Abbreviation: PVS
    Meaning: persistent vegetative state; pulmonary valve stenosis; Plummer-Vinson syndrome
  • Abbreviation: PWP
    Meaning: pulmonary wedge pressure
  • Abbreviation: Px; px
    Meaning: physical examination
  • Abbreviation: Px
    Meaning: prognosis
  • Abbreviation: P-Y
    Meaning: pack-years (years of smoking one package of cigarettes per day)
  • Abbreviation: PZA
    Meaning: pyrazinamide

Medical Abbreviations
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Medical Coding

Medical coding is dependent upon a solid understanding of medical terminology.

To be successful and accurate medical coders must have a solid understanding of common medical terms for various reasons which include:

  • Reading and understanding medical dictation
  • Proper code look up and selection
  • Communicating with physicians, insurance companies, and other medical professionals
  • Understanding human anatomy
  • Appealing claim denials


Medical abbreviations are used all the time in hospitals, clinics and various health institutions.

Many of these abbreviations are well-known and in use outside medical settings, but different institutions can develop internal abbreviations that aren't generally recognized.

Medical abbreviations are used to save time when diagnosing and writing charts. We've tried to put together an exhaustive list of the ones that are in general use.

Consider Context

If you encounter an abbreviation that could have two or more conflicting meanings, always consider the context.

Consider the abbreviation NVD. In one context it's short for normal vaginal delivery, while in a more general setting it stands for nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. You wouldn't want to confuse one with the other!

Abbreviation Example


The medical abbreviation A1C means glycosylated hemoglobin, or hemoglobin A1c.

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